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茭儿菜特征特性、生长发育环境观测及定名
作者: 钱芝龙1  王长春2  王秀梅2  毛焕胜2  杨德海2  彭泽民2  杨代松2  
李仁贵3
  王礼权3  潘宝贵1  李惠芬4  
单位: (1 江苏省农业科学院 蔬菜研究所  南京 210014;2 南京市栖霞区农业技术推广站  南京 210046;  
关键词: 茭儿菜  种质资源  形态特征  生物学特性  生长条件  定名  
分类号:S645.9
出版年,卷(期):页码:2017 ,48 ( 7 ): 页码:1253-1260
摘要:

【目的】观测江苏南京地区野生水生蔬菜茭儿菜种质资源(变种)的形态特征、生物学特性及生长发育环境条件,为南京地区茭儿菜人工驯化栽培及定名提供参考依据。【方法】以江苏南京地区搜集的野生茭儿菜种质资源(变种)为材料,开展小区栽培试验,观测其形态特征、生物学特性和生长发育环境条件,并进行命名。【结果】江苏南京地区茭儿菜是浅水植物,适宜生长水位5.0~35.0 cm。萌芽最低温度3~5 ℃,自开始正常生长至可采收期间最低和最高日均气温分别为12和26 ℃、水温为13和19 ℃。7月植株地上茎开始拔节生长,9~10节抽穗开花,可结实或不结实。食用部位为嫩茎,分白色和黄色两种,长20.0~30.0 cm,粗1.0 cm,单根重7.0~10.0 g。地上直立茎和地上茎为最佳繁殖材料,4~5月以基本苗数7株、种植密度33.0 cm&times;33.0 cm定植的小区当年平均产量(带壳)最高,为5595.0 kg/ha,以基本苗数5株、种植密度100.0 cm&times;100.0 cm定植的小区次年平均产量(带壳)最高,为3480.0 kg/ha。按照国际植物命名法将南京地区茭儿菜定名为菰属茭儿菜种Zizania regerminatio Zhi Long Qian et Hui Fen Li,其中白色变种定名为Z. regerminatio Z. L. Qian et H. F. Li var. lautus Zhi Long Qian et Hui Fen Li,黄色变种定名为Z. regerminatio Z. L. Qian et H. F. Li var. frugi Zhi Long Qian et Hui Fen Li,英文名称定名为Jiao er cai。【结论】江苏南京地区茭儿菜是浅水短日照植物,可作水生蔬菜、观赏植物及湿地植被等利用;定名为禾本科菰属茭儿菜种Z. regerminatio Zhi Long Qian et Hui Fen Li,英文名为Jiao er cai。

【Objective】Morphologic and biochemical characteristics and growth requirements of Zizania regerminatio(variant) germplasm, a wild aquatic vegetable in Nanjing, Jiangsu were studied to provide reference for artificial domestication and cultivation of it. 【Method】Wild Z. regerminatio(variant) germplasm collected in Nanjing, Jiangsu was used as material. Plot planting experiment was conducted to analyze its morphologic and biochemical characteristics and growth environment, and discuss its nomenclature. 【Result】 Z. regerminatio in Nanjing grew in shallow water, the suitable water level was 5.0-35.0 cm. The lowest germination temperature was 3-5 ℃, the lowest and highest daily average temperatures were 12 and 26 ℃, and the lowest and highest daily average water temperatures were 13 and 19 ℃ during growing and harvest. Seedlings above ground started to grow since July, the 9th-10th joints began to ear and in flowers, but some flowers were sterile, some produced seeds. The edible part was tender stem in white or yellow colors, with 20.0-30.0 cm length, 1.0 cm diameter and 7.0-10.0 g single stem weight. Erect stem and stem above ground were the optimal propagating materials. In April-May, the average yield this year(with hull) in plot whose basic seedling number was 7 and planting density 33.0 cm&times;33.0 cm was the highest(5595.0 kg);  the average yield next year(with hull) in plot whose basic seedling number was 5 and planting density 100.0 cm&times;100.0 cm was the highest(3480.0 kg). According to International Code of Nomenclature,  Z. regerminatio in Nanjing was named Zizania regerminatio Zhi Long Qian et Hui Fen Li. The white variant was named Z. regerminatio Z. L. Qian et H. F. Li var. lautus Zhi Long Qian et Hui Fen Li,  the yellow variant was named Z. regerminatio Z. L. Qian et H. F. Li var. frugi Zhi Long Qian et Hui Fen Li, and its English name was Jiao er cai. 【Conclusion】Z. regerminatio in Nanjing, Jiangsu is a short-day plant growing in shallow water. It can be aquatic vegetable, ornamental plant and wetland plant. It is named Zizania regerminatio Zhi Long Qian et Hui Fen Li, and English name is Jiao er cai.

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