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保水剂垫料栽培基质对番茄生理指标及产量的影响
作者: 刘丽珠  卢 信  范如芹  罗 佳  张振华*  
单位: (江苏省农业科学院 农业资源与环境研究所  南京 210014)  
关键词: 番茄  发酵床秸秆垫料栽培基质  保水剂(SAP)  生理指标  产量  
分类号:S641.2
出版年,卷(期):页码:2017 ,48 ( 7 ): 页码:1242-1248
摘要:

【目的】探讨添加不同种类保水剂(SAP)发酵床秸秆垫料栽培基质(以下简称垫料基质)对番茄生理指标及产量的影响,为蔬菜基质节水栽培提供参考依据。【方法】在垫料基质中添加3种类型(SAP1、SAP2和SAP3)及2个浓度(0.4%和0.8%)的SAP,测定各处理垫料基质的基本理化性状和种植番茄的生长参数、光合参数和保护酶活性等生理指标。【结果】与不添加SAP的对照(CK)相比,在等量浇水的情况下,垫料基质添加0.8% SAP1、SAP2和SAP3的番茄总产量分别提高10.0%、14.5%和26.5%,以添加0.8% SAP3的番茄增产效果最佳;添加3种SAP均有利于提高番茄叶片光合速率(Pn)和蒸腾速率(Tr),且SAP浓度越高,效果越佳;在开花期,添加0.8% SAP1、SAP2和SAP3的番茄叶片超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性均显著高于CK(P<0.05);在结果期,添加SAP处理的番茄叶片SOD活性降低,而POD活性升高,其中添加高浓度(0.8%)SAP的番茄叶片POD活性比添加低浓度(0.4%)SAP的升幅更明显。【结论】在垫料基质中添加SAP特别是添加淀粉基保水剂(SAP3)可改善番茄的部分生理指标,有利于番茄生长并提高产量,在蔬菜基质栽培中具有较高的推广价值。

【Objective】In the present study, effects of straw padding culture substrate for fermentation bed adding di-
fferent super absorbent polymer(SAP) on physiological indexes and yield were studied to provide reference for vegetable water-saving substrate culture.【Method】Three types of SAP(SAP1, SAP2 and SAP3) in two different concentrations(0.4% and 0.8%) were added in straw padding culture substrate for fermentation bed to plant tomatoes. Physical and chemical properties of padding substrate in each treatment and growth index,photosynthetic parameters and protective enzyme activity of tomato were measured. 【Result】Compared with control(CK) adding no SAP, when watering amounts were the same, the tomato yield in 0.8% SAP1, 0.8% SAP2 and 0.8% SAP3 treatments increased by 10.0%,14.5% and 26.5% respectively. Adding 0.8% SAP3 had the best yield increasing effect. SAP addition increased photosynthetic rate(Pn) and transpiration rate(Tr) of tomato leaf compared with CK. As the concentration of SAP increased, the effects were strengthened. At flowering period, in 0.8% SAP addition treatment, superoxide dismutase(SOD) and peroxidase(POD) activities in tomato leaf were significantly higher than CK(P<0.05). At fruiting period, in all SAP treatment groups, SOD activity in tomato leaf declined but POD activity increased. The increasing range of POD activity in high concentration treatment(0.8%) group was more obvious than low concentration treatment(0.4%) group. 【Conclusion】Adding SAP, especially starch-base SAP(SAP3) in straw padding culture substrate for fermentation bed can improve partial physiological indexes of tomato, thus stimulate plant growth and increase the yield. This technique can be promoted and utilized in vegetable planting.

基金项目:

国家自然科学基金项目(61562039,61363041,61462038);江西省教育厅科技项目(GJJ160374)

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