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苦楝果活性成分及其地理变异研究进展
作者: 何霞1  田永清2  惠文凯1  罗伟儒1  廖柏勇1  王芳1  陈晓阳1*  
单位: (1 华南农业大学林学与风景园林学院/广东省森林植物种质创新与利用重点实验室/亚热带农业生物资源保护与利用国家重点 实验室  广州510642;2 农药与化学生物学教育部重点实验室/华南农业大学昆虫毒理研究室  广州510642)  
关键词: 苦楝果  抗虫  活性成分  地理变异  
分类号:S789.5
出版年,卷(期):页码:2017 ,48 ( 10 ): 页码:1838-184
摘要:

苦楝(Melia azedarach Linn.)在我国分布广泛,地理变异明显,生长迅速,材质优良,是良好的用材树种;其

根、皮、花、果皆可入药,对多种害虫有明显的毒杀、拒食和忌避活性,是常见的生物农药原料,将苦楝果作为活性成分

提取材料,有利于开发材用价值。文章综述了苦楝果提取物的抗虫作用、杀虫活性成分及其作用效果,并结合遗传育

种策略,针对国内对苦楝果活性成分地理变异研究的局限与不足,提出在全分布区内收集具代表性的苦楝种源或家

系,分析不同种源、家系间苦楝果的活性成分种类及含量差异,研究其地理变异及个体变异规律,在优良种源或家系

选择的基础上,进一步将苦楝的生物农药应用结合木材利用进行改良,选择果实中活性成分含量高及生长性状表现

优良的种源或家系,再通过遗传育种手段培育出优良品种用于果林营造,以期达到苦楝材用与药用相结果的目的,综

合开发苦楝的经济价值。

Melia azedarach Linn. is widely distributed in China and has obvious geographic variation,which can be

used as commercial tree species for its fast growth and good quality. As a popular raw material for insecticidal drugs,the root,bark,flower and fruit of M. azedarach can be used as drugs which shows poisonousness,anti-feeding efficacy and repellent activity toward many pests. M. azedarach fruits can be used as materials for extracting active components,which is conducive to the utilization of wood. This review summarized the insect-resistant effects,insecticidal active components and efficacy of extracts from M. azedarach fruits. Moreover,due to the limitation and deficiency in the existing studies about geographic variation of active components from fruits of M. azedarach in China,this review combined with genetic breeding startegies,recommended researchers to collect representative M. azedarach provenances and families in whole distribution area,analyze differences in species and content of active components between different M. azedarach provenances and families,and reveal the pattern of geographic variation and individual variation. Finally,further improvement was made to M. azedarach biopesticide application by combining with wood utilization,based on the selection of fine provenances or families. Provenances or families whose fruits had high content of active components and good performance of growth traits were chosen to cultivate excellent species for fruit forest by genetic breeding,in order to realize the combined use of M. azedarach as drug and timber,and comprehensively develop its economic value.

基金项目:

广东省林业科技创新项目(2011KJCX002)

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