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修剪对茶树修剪凋落物水文特性的影响
作者: 朱留刚1  2  孙君1  2  张文锦1  2*  陈芝芝1  2  
单位: (1 福建省农业科学院茶叶研究所  福建福安355015;2 农业部福建茶树及乌龙茶加工科学观测实验站  福建福安355015)  
关键词: 茶树  修剪  凋落物  持水特性  失水特性  
分类号:S571.1
出版年,卷(期):页码:2017 ,48 ( 10 ): 页码:1795-1801
摘要:

【目的】分析修剪强度对茶树枝叶凋落物生物量及生态水文特性的影响,为茶园凋落物水文服务功能的定

量化研究与评估提供理论依据。【方法】以14年生黄观音茶园为研究对象,采用田间修剪与室内持水模拟试验相结合

的方法,测量、计算3种不同修剪强度(0~20、0~15和0~7 cm)凋落物的生物量、持水、失水特性,并将其与时间的相关

性进行拟合分析。【结果】3种不同修剪强度下茶树枝叶凋落物的生物量为1.75~2.49 t/ha。修剪凋落物最大持水率排

序为中度修剪(121.33%)>重度修剪(113.69%)>轻度修剪(106.16%);重度和中度修剪处理(2.89和2.83 t/ha)的最大

持水量显著高于轻度修剪处理(1.86 t/ha)(P<0.05);但重度、中度与轻度修剪最大失水量表现为中度修剪(0.84 t/

ha)>重度修剪(0.73 t/ha)>轻度修剪(0.67 t/ha)。修剪凋落物吸水速率在0.5 h内最高,表明其具有短时间内迅速拦截

降水,减少地表径流形成的作用;凋落物的持水量、持水率、失水量、失水率与浸水时间(t)的最佳拟合方程为W=a+

blnt;吸水速率、失水速率与时间(t)最佳拟合方程为幂函数V=atb。【结论】茶园成龄后,中度和重度修剪下枝叶凋落物

的持水量差别不明显,但均高于轻度修剪,表明中度或重度修剪可提高茶园生态水文功能。


【Objective】The effects of pruning intensity on biomass,ecological and hydrological characteristics of litter

of tea leaves were studied,and the theoretical basis was provided for the quantitative study and evaluation of litter hydrologicalservice function in tea garden.【Method】Taking the 14-year-old Huangguanyin tea garden as research object,combining field pruning and indoor water holding simulation test,litter biomass,water holding and dehydration characteristics of litter under three different pruning intensities(0-20,0-15 and 0-7 cm)were measured.Correlation between biomass,water holding and water loss characteristics with time of litter were analyzed.【Result】The biomass of tea leaf litter was 1.75-2.49 t/ha under three different pruning intensities. The maximum water holding capacity of litter was moderate pruning(121.33%)>severe pruning(113.69%)>light pruning(106.16%). The maximum water holding capacity of severe(2.89 t/ha)and moderate(2.83 t/ha)pruning treatments was significantly higher than that of light pruning(1.86 t/ha)(P<0.05);but the maximum water loss capacity was moderate pruning(0.84 t/ha)>severe pruning(0.73 t/ha)>light pruning(0.67 t/ha).The water absorption rate of litter in the first 0.5 h was the maximum,indicating that it could intercept precipitation within a short time quickly,reduced the formation of surface runoff. The best fit equation for litter water holding capacity,water holding rate,water loss capacity,water loss rate and soaking time(t)was W=a+blnt;the best fit equationfor water absorption rate,water loss rate and time(t)was power function V=atb(a,b were coefficient).【Conclusion】As tea garden grows,the difference in water holding capacity between moderate and severe pruning is not obvious,but the water holding capacities are larger than that of light pruning. Therefore,moderate and severe pruning can improve ecological hydrological functions in tea garden.


基金项目:

公益性行业(农业)科研专项项目(201303094);福建省属公益类科研院所基本科研专项项目(2015R1012-6,2014R1012-4);福建省科学院科技创新团队PI项目(2016PI-33)


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