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浙江省杨梅病虫害种类与发生规律及其绿色防控技术
作者: 王华弟1  沈 颖1  黄茜斌2  梁森苗3  徐志宏4  
单位: (1 浙江省农药检定管理所  杭州 310020;2 浙江省黄岩区果树技术推广总站  浙江 黄岩 318020;3 浙江省农业科学院  
关键词: 杨梅  病虫害种类  发生规律  绿色防控技术  浙江  
分类号:S436.67
出版年,卷(期):页码:2017 ,48 ( 4 ): 页码:640-646
摘要:

【目的】摸清浙江省杨梅主要病虫害种类与发生危害情况,为杨梅病虫害综合防控提供科学依据。【方法】2013~2016年在浙江杨梅主产区采用系统普查与定点监测、试验研究与示范推广相结合的方法,对杨梅主要病虫害种类、发生动态及危害情况进行调查,探讨杨梅主要病虫害综合治理策略及绿色防控技术。【结果】浙江省杨梅常见害虫有69种,隶属5目29科,常见病害有22种,其中真菌性病害15种,细菌性病害1种,生理性病害5种和根结线虫病1种;以杨梅介壳虫、果蝇、卷叶蛾、尺蠖、粉虱、蚜虫和褐斑病、癌肿病、赤衣病、白腐病、凋萎病、梢枯病等12种病虫为杨梅主要病虫害。在杨梅采收前25和45 d挂防虫网,对杨梅果蝇的防控效果达98.71%和99.19%;在杨梅采收前20、30和45 d喷施60 g/L乙基多杀菌素悬浮剂2000倍液,对杨梅果蝇的防治效果分别为96.17%、95.63%和93.72%;在杨梅采收前15 d喷施20%松脂酸钠可溶粉剂200倍液,对杨梅介壳虫的防治效果达97.42%;试验筛选出对杨梅果蝇和介壳虫防治效果好且使用安全的生物农药乙基多杀菌素和松脂酸钠。【结论】在杨梅生产上应采用合理密植、科学施肥、种植优良品种、冬季清园为主的农业防治,防虫网覆盖技术为主的物理防治,登记药剂科学合理使用和保护利用天敌相结合的综合防治技术措施,有效控制杨梅病虫害的发生。

【Objective】Major Myrica rubra diseases and pests and the ocurence in Zhejiang were studied in order to provide reference for comprehensive control of diseases and pests. 【Method】Systematic investigation and monitoring, field experiments and demonstrations were combined in main M. Rubra planting areas in Zhejang during 2013-2016. Major insect pests and diseases, occurrence dynamics and damages were researched, and comprehensive management strategies and green control technology were discussed. 【Result】In Zhejiang, there were 69 major pests belonging to 5 orders and 29 families; 22 common diseases, including 15 fungal diseases, 1 bacterial disease, 5 physiological diseases and 1 root knot nematode disease. Twelve pests and diseases including scale insect, fruit fly, tortricid, geometrid, aleyrodid, aphid and brown spots, crown gall, red coat disease, white rot, blight disease and top dry were major threats to M. Rubra. Using net covering cultivation technique 20 and 45 d before fruit harvest, the control effects of fruit bat flies reached 98.71% and 99.19% respectively. Spraying 60 g/L spinetoram SC 2000 times liquid 20, 30 and 45 d before harvest, control effects of fruit flies were 96.17%, 95.63%, 93.72% respectively. Spraying 20% sodium pimaric acid SP 200 times liquid 15 d before harvest, control effects of scale insects was 97.42%. The test showed that biological pesticides spinetoram and sodium pimaric acid were effective and safe ways to control fruit flies and scale insects. 【Conclusion】Agricultural controls like reasonable close planting, scientific fertilizer, fine varieties, clear garden over winter, physical controls like net covering cultivation technique, and comprehensive controls including reasonable application of registered pesticides integrated with natural enemies protection are applied to effectively control the occurrence of M. Rubra insect pests and diseases.

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