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清水江流域稻植气候适宜度时空变化分析
作者: 尚海龙  顾永泽  
单位: (凯里学院 旅游学院  贵州 凯里 556011)  
关键词: 气候适宜度  水稻  时空变化  清水江流域  
分类号:S162.1
出版年,卷(期):页码:2017 ,48 ( 1 ): 页码:100-108
摘要:

【目的】研究贵州省岩溶区清水江流域水稻种植气候适宜度时空变化,为稻植区合理规划布局及可持续发展提供参考依据。【方法】运用清水江流域2000~2014年16个气象观测站的逐日日照、降水量和温度数据及水稻平均物候观测资料,构建水稻诸气候因子及综合气候适宜度模型,并运用ENVI 4.8和ArcGIS 10.0对水稻全育期及各生育阶段的气候适宜度和稻植区分别进行测算、解译和空间分析。【结果】清水江流域稻植气候温度适宜度、降水适宜度和综合适宜度较高,且温度适宜度>降水适宜度;除拔节孕穗期和灌浆成熟期外,日照适宜度均较低。水稻幼苗期,降水适宜度>温度适宜度>日照适宜度;分蘖期和拔节抽穗期,温度适宜度>降水适宜度>日照适宜度;抽穗开花期和灌浆成熟期,温度适宜度>日照适宜度>降水适宜度。稻植适宜区分布于高程小于800 m、坡度小于25°的局部区域。【结论】清水江流域气候条件能够满足水稻全育期及各生育阶段的需求,但日照时间较短,对水稻生长发育有胁迫作用,其最适宜稻植区集中分布于东南及西北部的坝区、阳坡和半阳坡区。

【Objective】The present study researched temporal and spatial variation of rice planting climate suitability in Qingshuijiang River basin, Guizhou province, a karst area, in a bid to provided some references for rational planning and distribution of rice planting area and the sustainable development in Qingshui River basin. 【Method】Based on daily sunshine duration, precipitation, temperature, and rice phenological and meteorological data observed at 16 meteorological stations in Qingshui River basin from 2000 to 2014, models of climatic factors and comprehensive climate suitability were established. The variation of climate suitability in the whole growth stage and each growth stage was evaluated. Interpretation and spatial analysis of rice planting region were conducted by ENVI 4.8 and ArcGIS 10.0 software. 【Result】Rice planting climate temperature suitability, precipitation suitability and comprehensive suitability were high in Qingshuijiang River basin, and temperature suitability>precipitation suitability. Except for jointing-booting stage and grouting stage, sunshine suitability at other stages was low. At rice seedling stage, precipitation suitability>temperature suitability>sunshine suitability; at tillering stage and jointing-booting stage, temperature suitability>precipitation suitability>sunshine suitability; at earring and flowering stage, and grouting stage, temperature suitability>sunshine suitability>precipitation suitability. The areas suitable for rice planting were distributed at where elevation was less than 800 m and slope was less than 25°. 【Conclusion】The climate in Qingshuijiang River basin can match the need of whole rice growth stage and each growth stage. But sunshine duration is short, which can be destructive factor for growth rice. The optimal rice planting areas are mainly distributed in dam area, sunny slopes, and semi-sunny slopes in southeast and northwest of Qingshuijiang River basin.

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