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桂南一年两收栽培夏黑葡萄花芽分化进程调控
作者: 林 玲1  曹慕明2  郭荣荣3  谢蜀豫2  韩佳宇2  盘丰平2  
陈国品2
  王世平1  4  白先进5  王 博1 *  
单位: (1 广西大学 农学院  南宁 530004;2 广西农业科学院 葡萄与葡萄酒研究所  南宁 530007;3 广西作物遗传改良生物技术  
关键词: 夏黑葡萄  花芽分化  调控措施  一年两收栽培  成花率  
分类号:S663.1
出版年,卷(期):页码:2017 ,48 ( 1 ): 页码:57-65
摘要:

【目的】了解和掌握不同调控措施下桂南夏黑葡萄新梢冬芽花芽分化的关键时期,为其一年两收栽培二次果花芽分化调控提供参考依据。【方法】以8年生夏黑葡萄为试材,于新梢5~7片叶时开始每周采集第6节位芽,通过制作石蜡切片,探讨不同夏季修剪强度(花上2片叶摘心、花上4片叶摘心和花上6片叶摘心)和乙烯利喷施浓度(200、400和800 mg/L)对桂南一年两收栽培夏黑葡萄新梢花芽分化进程及成花率的影响。【结果】不同夏季修剪强度处理的夏黑葡萄新梢冬芽从花芽分化开始(3月29日)到稳定形成花穗(4月27日~5月4日)历时29~37 d,比对照(不摘心,不喷施乙烯利)植株缩短14~22 d,其花芽分化关键时期在4月13日(盛花期)前后。不同夏季修剪强度处理下夏黑葡萄新梢第6节位花芽分化集中、花芽分化进程历时短、成花率(53.3%~73.3%)相对较高。不同乙烯利喷施浓度处理下夏黑葡萄新梢第6节位花芽分化各时期出现不集中,花芽分化进程历时长(52 d),成花率(33.3%~40.0%)较对照低。【结论】不同夏季修剪强度均可促进桂南一年两收栽培夏黑葡萄新梢花芽分化进程,其中花上6片叶摘心是促进夏黑葡萄新梢第6节位花芽分化集中、花芽分化进程时间缩短的一项重要措施。

【Objective】The present study explored the key period for flower bud differentiation of Summer Black Grape in different regulation measures, in order to provide reference and guidance for regulation of flower bud differentiation of Summer Black Grape in two-crop-a-year cultivation in southern Guangxi. 【Method】Eight-year-old Summer Black Grape seedlings were used as materials. When the shoots grew five-seven leaves, buds at the sixth node were sampled weekly and made into paraffin sections. Effects of different summer pruning intensities(pinching at the second node above anthotaxy, pinching at the forth node above anthotaxy and pinching at the sixth node above anthotaxy) and different concentrations of ethephon spraying treatments(200, 400 and 800 mg/L) on flower bud differentiation process and flower formation rate in two-crop-a-year cultivation in southern Guangxi. 【Result】In different summer pruning intensity treatments, the time span between beginning of flower bud differentiation(March 29) of wiuter buds on shoots and formation of flower cluster(April 27-May 4) was 29-37 days, which was 14-22 days shorten than that in control group(no pinching and no ethephon spraying). The key period for flower bud differentiation was around April 13(full flowering stage). After different summer pruning intensity treatments, flower bud differentiation of the sixth node on shoots was concentrated with short duration and high flower formation rate(53.3%-73.3%). On the contrary, different concentrations of ethephon spraying resulted in dispersed stages of flower bud differentiation, longer duration(52 days) and lower flower formation rate(33.3%-40.0%) compared with control. 【Conclusion】This experiment shows that all summer pruning intensity treatments in this study promote the process of flower bud differentiation of winter buds on shoots of Summer Black Grape. Pinching at the sixth node on shoots above anthotaxy of Summer Black Grape is an important measure to promote concentrated flower bud differentiation of the sixth node on shoots with shortened duration.

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