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钾肥和稻草不同配比下水稻产量及钾素释放规律研究
作者: 刘淑军1  2  黄 晶1  2 *  李冬初1  2  张会民1  2  秦道珠1  2  
单位: (1 中国农业科学院 衡阳红壤实验站/国家水稻产业技术体系 祁阳综合试验站  湖南 祁阳 426182;2 中国农业科学院  
关键词: 钾肥  稻草  水稻产量  钾素释放规律  
分类号:S511;S158
出版年,卷(期):页码:2016 ,47 ( 5 ): 页码:627-631
摘要:

【目的】明确湘南稻区合适的钾肥和稻草配合施用比例,为湘南双季稻区域钾配合稻草还田提供技术支持。【方法】采用田间试验与室内分析相结合的方法,研究钾肥和稻草不同配比对田面水和田间表层土速效钾含量的动态变化,以及对水稻生长发育和产量的影响。【结果】钾肥60 kg/ha+稻草5000 kg/ha(K60+S2)处理的早、晚稻产量最高,分别为5763和6657 kg/ha,较不施钾肥的对照处理(K0)增产7.7%和21.2%。不同处理对早稻的表面水和表层土的速效钾含量影响不明显,晚稻以K60+S2处理的表面水、表层土速效钾含量最高。来源于稻草中的钾和化肥中的钾有相同的营养效应,随着减钾量和还田量的增加及时间的延长,对水稻钾的营养效应越明显。【结论】钾肥和稻草不同配比对水稻产量和表面水、表层土的速效钾含量均有影响,其中,以K60+S2处理对水稻产量及速效钾含量的影响效果最佳。

【Objective】The optimal proportions of potash fertilizer and straw were investigated, in order to provide technical support for returing potash fertilizer and straw to field of double-rice region in southern Hunan. 【Method】The field trials combined with laboratory analysis method were used to study effects of different proportions of potash fertilizer and straw on available K dynamics of surface water and topsoil, growth, development and yield of rice. 【Result】The results showed that, K60+S2 treatment(potash fertilizer 60 kg/ha+straw 5000 kg/ha) could improve yield of early and late rice, the yield of early and late rice after K60+S2 treatment were increased by 7.7% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with those of no potash fertilizer application. Different treatments had no obvious effect on available K content of surface water and topsoil for early rice. After K60+S2 treatment, available K content of surface water and surface soil for late rice was the highest. The K element from rice straw and chemical fertilizer had same nutritional effect, the K nutrition effect of rice became more obvious with reducing potassium, returning amount and prolonging time. 【Suggestion】Different proportions of potash fertilizer and straw had obvious effect on rice yield and available K content, especially K60+S2 treatment with the best effect.

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