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香蕉抗(耐)枯萎病新品种桂蕉9号的选育及其高产栽培技术
作者: 韦绍龙1  黄素梅1  韦莉萍1  韦 弟1  李朝生1  覃柳燕1  田丹丹1  
张进忠1
  周 维1  龙盛风1  杨 柳1   2 *  
单位: (1 广西农业科学院 生物技术研究所  南宁 530007;2 农业部甘蔗遗传改良生物技术重点实验室/  
关键词: 桂蕉9号  香蕉枯萎病  尖孢镰刀菌古巴专化型4号生理小种  抗病育种  高产栽培技术  
分类号:S668.103.4
出版年,卷(期):页码:2016 ,47 ( 4 ): 页码:530-536
摘要:

【目的】选育抗(耐)尖孢镰刀菌古巴专化型4号生理小种(FOC4)引起的香蕉枯萎病,且产量、品质性状优良的香蕉新品种,丰富广西抗(耐)枯萎病香蕉品种,为促进广西香蕉产业的健康持续发展提供技术支持。【方法】采用重病蕉区大田筛选母株,并利用组织培养芽变、盆栽接种病原菌压力选择及大田病区压力选择相结合的方法选育抗(耐)香蕉枯萎病品种,经过品系纯化、品比试验、区域试验、生产试验等,观察其特征特性、抗病性及产量表现等。【结果】桂蕉9号为巴西蕉芽变异株系,基因型为AAA,属中秆香蕉,全生育期310~350 d;果肉可溶性固形物含量22.3%,总糖含量19.6 mg/100 g,维生素C(Vc)含量16.38 mg/100 g,可滴定酸含量0.43%;果实具有较好的耐贮性,催熟后在室温下可保存3~5 d。2012~2015年在海南、广东及广西进行种植试验,桂蕉9号对由FOC4引起的枯萎病表现出抗(耐)性,1代及2代香蕉植株的田间发病率为0.95%~52.30%,比对照品种(巴西蕉、桂蕉6号、桂蕉1号)减少7.38%~88.70%(绝对值);1代及2代蕉单株平均产量为19.8~29.6 kg,总产量17001.0~74485.4 kg/ha,比对照品种增产-2.1%~515.5%。桂蕉9号于2015年6月通过广西农作物品种审定委员会审定。【结论】桂蕉9号是广西首个自主育成的抗(耐)香蕉枯萎病新品种,适宜在广西、云南、海南等香蕉主产区种植。

【Objective】The present study was conducted to breed high-yield, better-quality banana cultivar resistant or tolerant to banana Fusarium wilt induced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubence race 4(FOC4), enrich banana Fusarium wilt resistance varieties in order to improve the sustainable health development of Guangxi banana industry. 【Method】The banana plants which were survival in seriously FOC4 infested field, was selected as original parental plants to conduct tissue culture of mutant sucker; the mutant plantlets were selected by using somaclonal variation with pressure selection of pathogenic fungus inoculation in pot and field infected method. Through line purification, variety comparative test, regional trial and production test and so on, the agronomic traits and characteristics, resistance and yield of selected plantlets was investigated during 2012-2015. 【Result】The new breeding banana variety Guijiao 9 was the mutant of Musa AAA Cavendish. It was characterized by moderate plant height, 310-350 days of growth period from seedling stage to harvesting when planted in early spring in Guangxi. The fruit pulp had 22.3% of soluble solid content, 19.6 mg/100 g of total sugar content, 16.38 mg/100 g of Vc content, as well as 0.43% of soluble titratable acid. The fruit was of better storability for keeping 3-5 days at ambient temperature after ripening. The variety was of better resistance to FOC4 in Guangxi, Hainan and Guangdong banana planting areas, and the field incidence of Guijiao 9 new planting and ratoon ranged from 0.95% to 52.30% during 2012-2015, which was 7.38%-88.70%(absolute value) lower than the control varieties(Cavendish, Guijiao 6 and Guijiao 1. The yield per plant of Guijiao 9 ranged from 19.8 to 29.6 kg during 2012-2015, and the total yield was 17001.0-74485.4 kg/ha, which was -2.1%-515.5% higher than the controls. Guijiao 9 was certified and registered by Guangxi Committee for Crop Variety Registration in June, 2015. 【Conclusion】Guijiao 9 is the first FOC4 resistant banana variety bred by Guangxi autonomously, which is suitable to plant in autumn and early spring in Guangxi, Hainan and Guangdong banana planting areas.

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