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棕榈油与常见食用油脂肪酸组分的比较分析
作者: 李 静  王 永  杨耀东*  雷新涛  肖 勇  
单位: (中国热带农业科学院 椰子研究所/海南省热带油料作物生物学重点实验室  海南 文昌 571339)  
关键词: 棕榈油  食用油  脂肪酸  气相色谱  
分类号:TS225.19
出版年,卷(期):页码:2016 ,47 ( 12 ): 页码:2124-2128
摘要:

【目的】比较棕榈油与常见食用油脂肪酸组分的差异,为其作为优质食用油的品质改良提供参考依据。【方法】利用气相色谱检测6种市售食用油及20份新鲜油棕果提取的棕榈油,比较各油脂的脂肪酸组分差异,并分析新鲜油棕果提取的棕榈油脂肪酸组分间的相关性。【结果】6种食用油的油酸含量均较高,最高的是油茶油,油酸含量高达74.34%,最低的是葵花籽油,为15.25%;亚油酸含量则以葵花籽油最高(60.92%),油茶油最低(7.08%);棕榈油中棕榈酸占脂肪酸总量的40.96%,其次为油酸,所占比例为35.31%;各食用油中的月桂酸、肉豆蔻酸和硬脂酸含量均较低。芝麻油、油茶油、菜籽油、花生油和葵花籽油中的不饱和脂肪酸含量均较高,在76.00%以上。对20份新鲜的油棕果进行脂肪酸组分分析,发现部分油榈种质油酸含量较高,可达53.48%,亚油酸含量最高为16.64%;棕榈酸与油酸呈较强的负相关,相关系数为-0.58。【结论】棕榈油中脂肪酸组分与其他常见食用油的脂肪酸组分含量差异明显,其棕榈酸含量较高,油脂饱和度也较高,但棕榈酸与油酸呈负相关,可在育种工作中培育高油酸、低棕榈酸的油榈品种,使其成为优质的食用油源。

【Objective】The present study compared fatty acid component of palm oil and common edible oils, in order to provide reference basis for developing palm oil into high-quality edible oil. 【Method】Gas chromatography was applied to detect six kinds of edible oils on market and twenty units of palm oil extracted from fresh oil palm fruit pericarp. The fatty acid components in each oil was compared and correlation among different fatty acid components in extracted palm oil was analyzed. 【Result】Oleic acid content in the six kinds of edible oils were high. Oleic acid content in oleum camelliae was the highest, reaching 74.34%; sunflower oil had the lowest content, accounting for 15.25%. Iinoleic acid content was the highest in sunflower oil(60.92%) and the lowest in oleum camelliae(7.08%). In palm oil, palmitic acid made up 40.96% of fatty acid; oleic acid accounted for 35.31% of fatty acid. Lurel acid, myristic acid and stearic acid contents were low in edible oils. All unsaturated fatty acids in sesame oil,oleum camelliae, rapeseed oil,peanut oil,sunflower oil were high,reaching over 76.00%. In the analysis on fatty acid in 20 pieces of fresh oil palm fruit pericarp, some kinds of oil palm fruit pericarp obtained high content of oleic acid, reaching 53.48%. The highest linoleic acid propotion in one piece of fresh oil palm fruit pericarp was 16.64%. There was high negative correlation between palmitic acid and oleic acid, with correlation coefficient being -0.58. 【Conclusion】There are obvious difference in fatty acids between palm oil and other edible oils. In palm oil, the contents of palmitic acid and oleic acid are high. There is negative correlation between palmitic acid and oleic acid. Therefore, the researchers can breed palm oil variety with high oleic acid content and low palmitic acid content, making it a resource of edible oil.

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