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5种除草剂对芒稷、马唐的生物活性及对旱稻安全性评价
作者: 郭成林  覃建林  马永林  王彦辉  马跃峰*  黄辉晔  梁海波  
单位: (广西农业科学院 植物保护研究所/广西作物病虫害生物学重点实验室  南宁 530007)  
关键词: 旱稻  除草剂  芒稷  马唐  生物活性  安全性  
分类号:S482.4
出版年,卷(期):页码:2016 ,47 ( 3 ): 页码:389-394
摘要:

【目的】筛选防除旱稻田芒稷和马唐的安全高效除草剂,为开展田间化学除草提供科学依据。【方法】以盘栽3叶期芒稷、5~6叶期马唐和2叶1心期旱粳稻和旱糯稻为材料,采用定量喷雾法,以不施药处理作对照,室内测定5种除草剂(6.9%精噁唑禾草灵水乳剂、10%噁唑酰草胺乳油、25 g/L五氟磺草胺油悬浮剂、20%双草醚可湿性粉剂和50%二氯喹啉酸可湿性粉剂)的不同浓度处理对杂草的鲜重防效及对旱稻植株株高和鲜重的影响。【结果】五氟磺草胺、噁唑酰草胺、精噁唑禾草灵和双草醚对芒稷的活性较高,药后21 d鲜重抑制90%有效量(ID90)分别为14.57、25.78、26.01和34.44 g/ha;二氯喹啉酸对芒稷的活性一般,ID90为564.03 g/ha。精噁唑禾草灵和噁唑酰草胺对马唐的活性高,药后21 d鲜重ID90分别为25.51和26.09 g/ha;在试验剂量范围内,五氟磺草胺、双草醚和二氯喹啉酸对马唐的活性低,药后21 d植株地上部分鲜重抑制率均低于20.00%。精噁唑禾草灵和双草醚对旱稻生长有显著抑制作用(P<0.05),在试验剂量范围内,噁唑禾草灵对旱稻植株的株高平均抑制率为11.48%~21.01%、鲜重抑制率为25.49%~40.84%,双草醚的株高平均抑制率为8.00%~12.95%、鲜重抑制率为15.82%~26.93%;其他3种除草剂在常用量下对旱稻的抑制作用不明显,对旱稻株高和鲜重抑制率均低于10.00%。【结论】五氟磺草胺和噁唑酰草胺对芒稷生物活性高,噁唑酰草胺对马唐也有较高的除草活性,对旱稻安全,这两种除草剂适宜在旱稻田推广使用,生产中可根据田间芒稷和马唐发生为害情况选择使用。

【Objective】The safe and effective herbicides used to control Echinochloa colonum(L.) Link and Digitaria sanguinalis(L.) Scop in upland rice field were screened, in order to provide references for chemical weeding. 【Method】E. colonum at 3-leaf stage, D. sanguinalis at 5-6 leaves stage, and upland japonica rice and upland glutinous rice at two-leaf one-heart stage were used as test materials, which were planted in plastic trays. The experiment were conducted to investigate effect of 5 herbicides(6.9% fenoxaprop-ethyl EW, 10% metamifop EC, 25 g/L penoxsulam OF, 20% bispyribac-sodium WP, 50% quinclorac WP) at different concentrations on weed fresh weight control as well as plant height and fresh weight of upland rice plants by metered-dose spray method, with untreated materials as control, there were 4 replicates in each treatment. 【Result】The results showed that, penoxsulam, metamifop, fenoxaprop-ethyl and bispyribac-sodium had higher herbicidal activity to E. colonum, whose ID90 for fresh weight of E. colonum was 14.57, 25.78, 26.01 and 34.44 g/ha, respectively on the 21th day after herbicidal treatments, and quinclorac had ordinary activity to E. colonum, whose ID90 for fresh weight were 564.03 g/ha. In addition, metamifop and fenoxaprop-ethyl also had high herbicidal activity to D. sanguinalis, whose ID90 for fresh weight were 25.51 and 26.09 g/ha on the 21th day after herbicidal treatments. Furthermore, penoxsulam, bispyribac-sodium and quinclorac within tested dosage range had low activity to D. sanguinalis, thus their fresh weight inhibition rates were all less than 20.00% on the 21th day after herbicidal treatments. Fenoxaprop-ethyl and bispyribac-sodium showed significant inhibitory effect on upland rice growth, thus the plant height and fresh weight inhibition rates of fenoxaprop-ethyl within tested dosage rang was 11.48%-21.01%, 25.49%-40.84%, respectively, the plant height and fresh weight inhibition rates of bispyribac-sodium were 8.00%-12.95% and 15.82%-26.93%, respectively. Other three herbicides showed non-significant inhibitory effect on upland rice growth, thus their plant height and fresh weight inhibition rates were all less than 10.00%. 【Conclusion】Fenoxaprop-ethyl and penoxsulam have high herbicidal activity to E. colonum, and fenoxaprop-ethyl also had high herbicidal activity to D. sanguinali. Therefore, these herbicides are safe for upland rice, which should be selected and extended in upland rice field based on occurrence situation of E. colonum and D. sanguinalis.

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