|作者： 甘丽红1 廖 青2 田智得1 黄东亮3 *|
|单位： （1 广西蚕业科学研究院 南宁 530007；2 广西农业科学院 农业资源与环境研究所 南宁 530007；3 广西农业科学院|
|关键词： 鸡粪发酵肥 桑园土壤 微生物 理化性状 桑树生长|
|出版年,卷(期):页码：2016 ,47 ( 3 )： 页码：353-358|
【目的】研究鸡粪发酵有机肥对桑园土壤微生物数量、理化性状及桑树生长的影响，为改良桑园土壤肥力、提高桑叶产量和品质提供科学依据。【方法】以桑树长势一致的田块为供试区，设置6个不同比例的有机无机配比施肥处理，分别为单施有机肥（100% M）、单施化肥（100% CF）、不同比例有机无机配施（75% M+25% CF、50% M+50% CF、25% M+75% CF）和不施肥（CK），测定不同施肥处理对土壤微生物数量、理化性状及桑树生长和桑叶品质的影响。【结果】100% M处理对增加土壤微生物总数的效果最好，细菌、放线菌和真菌数量最高，分别为4.73×107、18.60×106和11.50×105 CFU/g，与CK间差异达极显著水平（P＜0.01,下同），且所有有机肥配施处理的土壤微生物数量均高于100% CF和CK处理。增施有机肥可提高土壤有机质含量和土壤pH，100% M和75% M+25% CF处理的土壤有机质含量显著高于其他处理（P＜0.05），pH极显著高于其他处理；50% M+50% CF处理土壤碱解氮和速效磷含量最高，75% M+25% CF处理土壤含速效钾含量最高，且3种速效养分含量均以CK和100% CF处理含量较低。从桑叶产量来看，75% M+25% CF处理最高，50% M+ 50% CF处理次之。从桑叶品质来看，75% M+25% CF处理的粗蛋白、粗脂肪、可溶性糖等成分含量较高、粗灰分含量最低。【结论】施用鸡粪发酵有机肥可增加桑园土壤微生物数量、改善桑园土壤理化性状，促进桑树生长，增加桑叶产量并提高其品质，其中以75% M+25% CF配比处理效果最佳。
【Objective】The effects of application of fermented chicken manure on soil microbial quantity and physicochemical properties of mulberry field as well as mulberry growth were studied， in order to provide references for improving soil fertility， and yield and quality of mulberry leaf. 【Method】The present experiment were conducted in the mulberry field， which included 6 fertilizer treatments viz.， single application of manure（100% M）， single application of chemical fertilizer（100% CF），combined application of M and CF at different proportions（75% M+25% CF，50% M+50% CF， 25% M+75% CF） and no fertilization（CK）. Then the effects of different treatments on soil microbial quantity， physicochemical properties， mulberry growth and leaf quality were investigated. 【Result】The results showed that， 100% M treatment had the best effect on increasing soil microbial quantity， especially， the quantities of bacteria， fungi and actinomycetes were the highest， which were 4.73×107， 18.60×106 and 11.50×105 CFU/g， respectively， and extremely significantly higher than those of CK treatment（P＜0.01，the same below）. Furthermore， the soil microbial quantities after combined application treatments of manure and chemical fertilizer were all higher than those after 100% CF and CK treatments. And the application of organic manure could increase organic matter content and soil pH， and the soil organic matter content after 100% M and 75% M+25% CF treatment were significantly higher than those after other treatments（P＜0.05）， and pH was extremely significantly higher than those after other treatments. In addition， the soil alkali-hydrolyzable N content after 50% M+50% CF treatment was the highest， available P content after 100% M treatment was the highest， available K content after 75% M+25% CF treatment was the highest， and these 3 available nutrient content after CK and 100% CF treatments were lower. According to yield of mulberry leaves， 75% M+25% CF treatment were the highest， followed by 50% M+50% CF treatment， then CF treatment. According to quality of mulberry leaves， the contents of crude protein， crude fat and soluble sugar after 75% M+25% CF treatment were higher than those after other treatments， but crude ash content was the lowest. 【Conclusion】Application of chicken manure can increase soil microbial quantity， improve soil physicochemical properties， promote mulberry growth， and increase yield and quality of mulberry leaves. Especially， combined application of 75% M and 25% CF had the optimum treatment effect.