贺梁琼1 韩柱强1 王兴军2 蒋 菁1 熊发前1 赵传志2 唐秀梅1
黄志鹏1 唐荣华1 * 钟瑞春1 *
|单位： （1 广西农业科学院 经济作物研究所 南宁 530007；2 山东省农业科学院 生物技术研究中心 济南 250100）|
|关键词： 花生 桂花33 品种选育 栽培技术|
|出版年,卷(期):页码：2016 ,47 ( 3 )： 页码：343-347|
【目的】选育高油、高产且适应性广的花生新品种，为广西花生产业的可持续发展提供良种和技术支持。【方法】以优异种质0442/3001-18为母本、（025春/26×汕油162）F5代为父本，通过有性杂交，采用多代定向选择结合系谱选育法，并经过区域试验和生产试验综合考察，选育出花生新品种桂花33。【结果】桂花33株型直立紧凑、生长势强，耐旱、抗倒伏性强，抗叶斑病、中抗青枯病。2011~2012年品比试验发现，荚果平均产量4149.05 kg/ha，分别比对照汕油523和桂花21增产10.68%和12.31%。在2013~2014年广西花生区域试验中，荚果平均产量4281.23 kg/ha，籽仁平均产量2759.10 kg/ha，分别比对照桂花21增产7.81%和7.70%；平均粗脂肪含量55.57%，蛋白质含量26.15%，饱果率84.87%，双仁果率82.82%，百果重189.5 g，百仁重74.7 g，出仁率65.05%。在广西武鸣生产试验中，荚果平均产量4193.50 kg/ha，比当地主栽品种桂花17增产12.06%；在武宣县和北流市生产试验中，荚果平均产量分别为4050.50和4237.60 kg/ha。于2015年6月通过广西农作物品种审定委员会审定，是目前华南花生产区育成且油含量最高的花生品种。【结论】桂花33油含量高、产量高、适应性广，综合性状优良，适宜在我国南方各主要花生产区推广种植，栽培上应注意在生长中后期适当进行苗情控制。
【Objective】The present exprement was conducted to breed new peanut varieties with high oil content， high yield and wide adaptability， in order to provide improved variety and technical support for sustainable development of Guangxi peanut industry. 【Method】Using excellent germplasm 0442/3001-18 as female parent and（025 Chun/26×Shanyou 162） F5 as male parent， the new peanut variety Guihua 33 was obtained by crossbreeding， multi-generation directional selection combined with pedigree breeding method and synthetical evaluation in regional trial and production trial. 【Result】Guihua 33 had some fine characteristics， such as erect and compact plant type， growing vigorously， drought tolerance， high resistance to lodging and leaf pot， and moderate resistance to bacterial wilt. The average pod yield of Guihua 33 was 4149.05 kg/ha in peanut variety comparative test during 2010-2011， which was increased by 10.68% and 12.31% compared with control variety Shanyou 523 and Guihua 21， respectively. The average pod yield and seed yield of Guihua 33 were 4281.23 and 2759.10 kg/ha in Guangxi peanut varieties regional trial during 2013-2014， which were increased by 7.81% and 7.70% compared with control variety Guihua 21， respectively. Furthermore， Guihua 32 was characterized by 55.57% of oil content， 26.15% of protein content， 84.87% of full-pod rate， 82.82% of double-kernel pod rate， 189.5 g of 100-pod weight， 74.7 g of 100-seed weight and 65.05% of kernel rate. Beside， the dry pod yield of Guihua 33 in the production test of Wuming， Guangxi was 4193.50 kg/ha， which was 12.06% higher than local main cultivar Guihua 17， and the dry pod yields in production tests of Wuxuan and Beiliu were 4050.50 and 4237.60 kg/ha. It was approved and registered by Guangxi Committee for Crop Variety Registration in June， 2015， whose oil content of which was the highest among all varieties bred provinces in peanut production areas of south China. 【Conclusion】Guihua 33 was characterized by high oil content， high yield and wide adaptability and fine comprehensive characters， which is suitable for extending and planting in peanut production area of southern China， and more attentions were paid to inhibiting overgrowth of seedlings during mid-late growth period.