姜婷婷 覃培升 黎金锋 刘 斌 李子玲* 谭梦超 王 瑾
吴宗华 梁 锟 罗燕卿
|单位： （广西大学 农学院 南宁 530005）|
|关键词： 平菇 菇蚊 菇蝇 种类 消长规律 南宁|
|出版年,卷(期):页码：2016 ,47 ( 1 )： 页码：67-73|
【目的】明确广西南宁为害平菇的蚊、蝇类害虫种类及其周年消长规律，为平菇蚊、蝇类害虫的综合防治提供科学依据。【方法】在广西南宁市郊食用菌种植场采集为害平菇的蚊、蝇类害虫的成虫，通过形态特征和DNA条形码鉴定，确定害虫的常见种和主要种；同时连续2年利用杀虫灯诱集法系统调查主要蚊、蝇类害虫全年数量动态变化，绘制周年数量消长曲线图，分析周年消长规律。【结果】广西南宁为害平菇的蚊、蝇类害虫常见的有11种，分属于7科7属，其中异迟眼蕈蚊（Bradysia difformis）、黑粪蚊（Scatopse sp.）和异蚤蝇（Megaselia sp.）发生数量多，造成的为害最严重。眼蕈蚊的发生高峰期从1月中旬持续至4月中旬或5月下旬；粪蚊的发生高峰期从3月上旬或下旬持续至5月下旬或6月下旬；蚤蝇的发生高峰期则从1月下旬或2月中旬持续至6月下旬，发生高峰期外，眼蕈蚊、粪蚊的数量极少，蚤蝇的数量则在较低水平上下波动。【结论】广西南宁为害平菇的蚊、蝇类害虫主要是异迟眼蕈蚊、黑粪蚊和异蚤蝇，其所属的类群1年均只有1个发生高峰期，且出现在上半年，生产上应在发生高峰期前做好防治的准备工作，适时采用黄板诱杀、食用菌专用杀虫灯诱杀或喷施4.3%高氟氯氰·甲阿维乳油等进行防控。
【Objective】The present experiment was conducted to investigate species of mosquitoes and flies damaging Pleurotus ostreatus in Nanning， Guangxi as well as their annual growth and decline law， in order to provide scientific references for integrated control of these mosquitoes and flies. 【Method】Adult mosquitoes and flies damaging P. ostreatus were collected from some edible mushroom farms in the suburb of Nanning， Guangxi. Common species and main species of these mosquitoes and flies were identified based on morphological characterization and DNA barcode. Meanwhile， the annual quantity dynamic changes of adult mosquitoes and flies were investigated systematically by insecticidal lamp trapping method. Then， the annual population fluctuation curve was drawn to analyze their annual growth and decline law. 【Result】The results showed that， there were 11 common species of mosquitoes and flies damaging P. ostreatus growth in Nanning， Guangxi， belonging to 7 genera， 7 families. Of which， the populations of B. difformis， Scatopse sp. and Megaselia sp. were the most， and resulted in the most serious damages. The occurrence peak of sciarid flies appeared from middle January to middle April or late May； the occurrence peak of scatopsid flies appeared from early March or late March to late May or late June； the occurrence peak of phorid flies appeared from late January or middle February to late June. At any other time， there were very few sciarid flies and scatopsid flies to be found， while the quantity of phorid flies fluctuated at the low level. 【Conclusion】B. difformis， Scatopse sp. and Megaselia sp. are the main species damaging growth of P. ostreatus in Nanning， Guangxi， and there is one occurrence peak of each species population every year. Furthermore， because the peak of each species appeared in first half year， all the preparatory work on controlling should be ready in advance， and the yellow sticky trap， insecticidal lamp special for edible fungi and 4.3% beta-cyfluthrin·emamectin benzoate EC should be used to control them.