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火龙果炭疽病病原菌的鉴定及生物学特性研究
作者: 朱迎迎1  2  李 敏2  高兆银2  章 武2  杨冬平2  陈 亮1  2  胡美姣2 *  
单位: (1 海南大学 环境与植物保护学院  海口 570228;2 中国热带农业科学院 环境与植物保护研究所/农业部热带作物有害生物  
关键词: 火龙果  炭疽病  平头炭疽菌  rDNA-ITS  生物学特性  
分类号:S436.67
出版年,卷(期):页码:2016 ,47 ( 1 ): 页码:59-66
摘要:

【目的】明确火龙果果实炭疽病病原菌的种类及其生物学特性,为火龙果炭疽病病害防控提供理论依据。【方法】通过致病性测定、形态学特征观察及rDNA-ITS序列和系统发育树分析的方法对引起火龙果果实炭疽病的病原菌进行鉴定,并初步研究其生物学特性。【结果】供试菌株ITS序列为576 bp,与平头炭疽菌(登录号:HQ896482、AF451899)、辣椒炭疽菌(登录号:JX910365、HQ271465)的同源性均达100%;系统发育分析结果表明,该菌株与平头炭疽菌和辣椒炭疽菌具有很近的遗传关系。该菌菌丝生长的适宜温度为20~30 ℃,产孢适宜温度为25~35 ℃,最适生长和产孢温度为30 ℃,致死温度为60 ℃处理10 min;菌丝适宜生长pH为4~9,最适pH为8,产孢适宜pH为4~7,最适产孢pH为4;最适碳源为蔗糖和D-果糖,最适氮源为牛肉膏和蛋白胨,可溶性淀粉和硝酸铵有利于该菌产孢;连续光照和光暗交替有利于菌丝生长,黑暗则有利于该菌产孢。【结论】引起海南省火龙果果实炭疽病的另一种病原菌是平头炭疽菌[C. truncatum (Schw.) Andrus & Moore],该菌不仅侵染火龙果果实,还能侵染大豆豆荚和番茄果实。

【Objective】The present experiment was conducted to investigate species and biological characteristics of anthracnose pathogen from pitaya, in order to provide scientific basis for controlling pitaya anthracnose. 【Method】Based on pathogenicity test, morphological characteristics observation, and analysis of rDNA-ITS sequence and phylogenetic tree, the pitaya anthracnose pathogen was identified. And the biological characteristics of pathogen were studied. 【Result】The ITS sequence of tested strains was 576 bp in length, which showed 100% homology with Collectotrichum truncatum(Accession NO. HQ896482 and AF451899) and C. capsic(Accession NO. JX910365 and HQ271465). Furthermore, the analysis result of phylogenetic tree showed that pathogen had the closest genetic relationship with C. truncatum and C. capsici. The suitable temperature for mycelial growth of C. truncatum ranged from 20 to 30 ℃, the suitable temperature for sporulation of C. truncatum ranged from 25 to 35 ℃, and the optimum temperature for growth and sporulation was 30 ℃. In addition, the lethal temperature for mycelial growth was 60 ℃ for 10 min, the suitable pH for mycelial growth ranged from 4 to 9, and the optimum pH was 8. And the suitable pH for sporulation ranged from 4 to 7, and the optimum pH was 4. Moreover, the optimal carbon and nitrogen sources for mycelial growth were sucrose and beef extract, and the soluble starch and ammonium nitrate were conducive to sporulation. The continuous illumination and alternation of light and darkness were beneficial for mycelial growth, and dark was good for sporulation. 【Conclusion】The pathogen causing anthracnose in Hainan province is identified as C. truncatum(Schw.) Andrus & Moore, which is not only able to infect pitaya fruit, but also infect soybean pod and tomato fruit.

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