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不同越橘品种在新疆干旱条件下的光合生理响应
作者: 古丽江·许库尔汗  孙雅丽  阿依古丽·铁木儿  刘 珩  
单位: (新疆林业科学院  乌鲁木齐 830000)  
关键词: 越橘  干旱胁迫  光合参数  生理指标  新疆  
分类号:S663.9
出版年,卷(期):页码:2015 ,46 ( 12 ): 页码:2153-2158
摘要:

【目的】分析不同越橘品种在新疆干旱条件下的光合生理响应,筛选适应干旱气候条件的越橘品种,为新疆越橘产业发展提供参考依据。【方法】设对照(CK)、轻度干旱、中度干旱和重度干旱4个土壤干旱胁迫梯度(绝对水含量分别为25.00%、20.00%、15.00%和10.00%)盆栽北陆、美登、北春、奇伯瓦和瑞卡5个越橘品种,测定其叶片光合参数及生理指标,分析其抗旱能力。【结果】随着干旱胁迫的加剧,各品种叶片光合参数中的净光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)及气孔导度(Gs)均逐渐降低,其中北陆、美登、奇伯瓦和瑞卡叶片的Pn出现负值,且与CK差异极显著(P<0.01,下同);美登、北春、奇伯瓦和瑞卡叶片的Tr极显著低于CK;5个越橘品种叶片的Gs排序为北春>瑞卡>奇伯瓦=美登>北陆,极显著低于CK;叶片的胞间CO2浓度(Ci)均呈上升趋势,除北春外均极显著高于CK,其中北春叶片的Ci上升较慢,北陆叶片的Ci上升最快;水分利用率(WUE)除北春叶片外其余4个品种均下降至负值,均极显著低于CK。随着干旱胁迫的增强,各生理指标中瑞卡叶片的叶绿素含量比CK提高,奇伯瓦比CK下降,二者变幅较小;各品种可溶性糖含量呈缓慢上升趋势;美登、北春和奇伯瓦叶片的相对电导率比其余品种提高较快;各品种叶片的丙二醛(MDA)含量呈先下降后上升变化趋势。【结论】奇伯瓦、美登和北春3个越橘品种能耐较高程度干旱胁迫,耐旱性能明显优于北陆和瑞卡,可在新疆进行设施和盆栽推广种植。

【Objective】The present experiment was conducted to investigate photosynthetic physiological responses of different Vaccinium spp. under drought conditions in Xinjiang ,and screen out Vaccinium spp. adapted to arid climate conditions in Xinjiang, in order to provide reference for industrial development of Vaccinium spp. in Xinjiang. 【Method】Five Vaccinium spp. viz., Northland, Blomidon, Beichun, Chippewa and Ruika were potted under different soils drought stress conditions viz., control, mild drought stress, moderate drought and heavy drought(absolute water contents of soils was 25.00%, 20.00%, 15.00% and 10.00%). Then the photosynthetic parameters of leaves and physiological indexes were determined to analyze drought resistant ability. 【Result】Among all photosynthetic parameters of leaves, as the drought stress was intensified, the net photosynthetic rate(Pn), transpiration rate(Tr), stomatal conduction(Gs) of various varieties were gradually decreased. And the Pn of 4 varieties viz., Northland, Blomidon, Chippewa and Ruika were minus values, which were extremely significantly lower than those of control, respectively (P<0.01, the same below). Moreover, the Tr of Blomidon, Beichun, Chippewa and Ruika were extremely significantly lower than those of control, respectively. The five blueberry varieties leaves were ranked in order of Gs, as follows:Beichun>Ruika>Chippewa=Blomidon>Northland, which were extremely significantly lower than control. And the intercellular CO2 concentrations(Ci) in leaves of five varieties presented increasing trend, which were extremely significantly higher than those of control. However, the Ci in leaves of Beichun rose at the slowest rate, that in leaves of Northland leaves declined at the fastest rate. Furthermore, except for Beichun, the water use efficiencies(WUE) of tested cultivars reduced to minus value, which were significantly lower than those of control. With the intensification of drought stress, the chlorophyll content in leaves of Ruika was higher than that of control, and that in leaves of Chippewa was higher than that of control, but both changed in a small range, compared with that of control. In addition, the soluble sugar content of each variety rose slowly. The relative conductivity of Blomidon, Beichun and Chippewa leaves increased more quickly than other varieties. Malondialdehyde(MDA) contents of Northland, Chippewa, Beichun, Blomidon and Ruika firstly decreased and then increased. 【Conclusion】Three Vaccinium spp. viz., Chippewa, Northland, Beichun can tolerate heavy drought stress, and have significantly higher drought tolerance than Northland and Ruika. Therefore, these three varieties are suited to facility cultivation and potted cultivation in Xinjiang.

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