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我国葡萄一年两收栽培的区划研究进展
作者: 郭荣荣1  王 博2  成 果3  林 玲2  曹雄军3  张 瑛3  谢太理3  白先进4 *  
单位: (1 广西作物遗传改良生物技术重点开放实验室  南宁 530007;2 广西大学 农学院  南宁 530004;  
关键词: 葡萄  一年两收  年均气温  区划  
分类号:S663.1
出版年,卷(期):页码:2016 ,47 ( 12 ): 页码:2091-2097
摘要:

葡萄一年两收栽培技术是指一年生产两造(两茬、两季)葡萄的栽培模式,通过促进葡萄二次花芽分化,利用绿枝夏芽、冬芽当年开花,或打破老熟枝条冬芽休眠,形成两季葡萄产量。文章通过分析我国葡萄一年两收不同产区的气候条件与栽培模式,并与葡萄生长所需的气候要求进行对比,对不同区域适用的栽培模式及品种类型进行划分,得知年均气温是决定能否发展葡萄一年两收栽培的关键气象因子。年均气温在20.0 ℃以上的南方地区可在露地进行早、中熟品种的两代不同堂一年两收栽培,是葡萄特殊优势栽培区,年均气温17.5~20.0 ℃的地区可进行早熟品种的两代不同堂一年两收栽培和早、中熟品种的两代同堂一年两收栽培,年均气温16.0~17.5 ℃的地区可进行早熟品种的两代同堂一年两收栽培;北方年均气温在12.0 ℃左右及以上的地区,采取适当的栽培措施也可在露地条件下实现早熟品种的两代同堂一年两收栽培,在日光温室等设施栽培条件下,即使年均气温仅在5.0 ℃左右也可进行一年两收栽培生产。

Two-crop-a-year grape cultivation technique means cultivation model of two harvests per year or two planting seasons per year, which is realized through promoting secondary bud differentiation and flowering of summer bud or winter bud on green shoots, or breaking dormancy of winter bud on old shoots. Hence grapes can be harvested twice in a year. The present study was conducted to regionalize grape producing areas which were suitable for two-crop-a-year cultivation models and cultivars in China through analyzing climate conditions and cultivation model of various producing areas and comparing them with climate conditions needed for grape growth. Average annual air temperature was one key meteorological factor for deciding whether producing area could develop two-crop-a-year grape. Some southern areas that annual average temperature was above 20.0 ℃ were suited to growing early-maturing and medium-maturing cultivars using two-crop-a-year grape cultivation model that two crops were not overlapped, which were grape cultivation areas with special advantage. Some southern areas that annual average temperature was below 20.0 ℃ but above 17.5 ℃ were suited to growing early-maturing cultivars using two-crop-a-year grape cultivation model that two crops were not overlapped, as well as early-maturing and medium-maturing varieties using two-crop-a-year grape cultivation model that two crops were overlapped at some time. In the southern areas that annual average temperature was below 17.5 ℃ but above 16.0 ℃, some early maturity cultivars could be cultivated using two-crop-a-year grape cultivation model that two crops were overlapped at some time. For the northern areas that annual average temperature was around or above 12.0 ℃, it was possible to obtain two-crop-a-year grape of some early-maturing cultivars grown even in open-field, if some appropriate cultivation measures were applied. In the solar green houses of northern areas, it was able to produce two crops per year, even annual average temperature was around 5.0 ℃.

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