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广西防城金花茶花期气候适应性分析
作者: 裴开程1  许文龙2  罗浩然1  林文桦2  王 莹3  
单位: (1 防城港市防城区气象局  广西 防城港 538021;2 防城港市气象局  广西 防城港 538001;  
关键词: 金花茶  开花期  气候适应性  防城区  
分类号:S162.5
出版年,卷(期):页码:2016 ,47 ( 12 ): 页码:2084-2090
摘要:

【目的】研究金花茶开花期与各气象要素的相关性,为提高金花茶产量和品质提供决策依据。【方法】收集广西防城国家基准气候站1982年11月~2016年3月逐日观测数据,运用普查法查找防城站1982~2016年共34年的逐日雨量、温度、相对湿度、日照、风等气象要素,统计各要素的平均值、距平值和5年滑动平均值等,用线性倾向估计最小二乘法和累积距平法找出各气象要素与金花茶开花期的相关性。【结果】广西防城金花茶花期多年降雨量稳定在200.0~300.0 mm,呈减少趋势,但不明显;金花茶单花周期降雨量在4.0~12.0 mm的时段长,为最适宜开花时段;11月上旬和3月中、下旬单花周期雨量≥12.0 mm概率和中雨以上降雨过程概率均较高,不利于开花。广西防城金花茶花期干旱概率在35.0%以上,干旱特征明显。花期多年平均相对湿度为77%,线性拟合递减率为-0.527,有减小趋势,但不显著;3月中、下旬相对湿度≥85%以上日数在7 d以上,高温高湿天气频现,对开花不利,12月中旬中后期和下旬前期易出现低温低湿天气。单花所需≥8 ℃有效积温约110 ℃,相对固定,各旬气温分布不均,导致单花维持周期呈单峰型分布,1月下旬单花周期最长,11月上、中旬和3月中、下旬最短。11~12月单花周期日照时数过多,均在24.0 h以上,3月中旬平均日照时数仅有9.8 h。多年花期出现大风概率占全年出现大风概率的53.5%,需防范偏北大风天气。【结论】广西防城金花茶花期主要受持续性降雨、干旱、低温低湿、低温高湿、高温高湿、大风等气象灾害影响,种植户应关注当地天气预报,及时采取相应的防范措施,以达到提高金花茶产量和品质的目的。

【Objective】Correlations between florescence of Camellia nitidissima Chi and meteorological factors were studied, in order to provide a basis for improving yield and quality of C. nitidissima Chi. 【Method】Data were collected in National Reference Climatological Station of Fangcheng, Guangxi every day from November, 1982 to March, 2016. Meanwhile, day-by-day rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, sunshine, wind and other meteorological factors of last 34 years were searched by general investigation method. Average of meteorological factors, anomaly and 5-day overlapping average were calculated. Correlations between florescence of C. nitidissima Chi and meteorological factors were investigated by least-square method of linearity trend estimation and cumulative anomaly method. 【Result】Results showed that, rainfall ranged from 200.0 to 300.0 mm at flowering stage of C. nitidissima Chi in Fangcheng, Guangxi over the years, showing a decreasing tendency, but insignificantly. Duration when rainfall remained at 4.0-12.0 mm was long at single flower stage, so it was optimum flowering time. In addition, probabilities of rainfall≥12.00 mm and above moderate rainfall process were larger at single flower stage in early November and mid-to-late March, which was not good for flowering. Probability of drought was more than 35.0%, and characteristics of drought were not obvious. Average relative humidity was 77% at flowering stage of C. nitidissima Chi. Linear fitting declining rate was -0.527, with a non-significant decreasing tendency. Duration with relative humidity≥85% was seven days in mid-to-late March. High-temperature and high-humidity weather occurred frequently, which was not good for flowering, and low-temperature and low-humidity weather occurred frequently in the middle and later days of middle December and earlier days of late December. ≥8 ℃ effective accumulative temperature needed for single flower was 110 ℃, which was relatively regular. Air temperature was not evenly distributed in earlier, middle and later stages of month, resulting in duration of single flower being unimodal distribution, duration of single flower was the longest in late January, but the shortest in early and middle November and mid-to-late March. There were too many sunshine hours at flowering stage from November to December, and sunshine durations were all more than 24.0 hours, but sunshine duration in middle March was only 9.8 hours. Furthermore, over the years, occurrence probability of gale accounted for 53.5% of annual gale probability, so some measures should be taken to prevent damage of northern gale at flowering stage of C. nitidissima Chi. 【Conclusion】At flowering stage, C. nitidissima Chi is mainly affected by meteorological disasters, such as persistent rainfall, drought, low temperature and low humidity, low temperature and high humidity, gale and so on. Growers should pay more attention to local weather forecast, and some preventive measures should be taken timely to improve yield and quality of C. nitidissima Chi.

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