周 超1 金 浩1 方 保2 刘志飞1 刘彦中1 * 张加建1 罗以贵1
高福宏3 李忠环3 刘志莲4 杨雪梅2
|单位： （1 云南农业大学 烟草学院 昆明 650201；2 保山市烟草公司 云南 保山 678000 ；3 云南省烟草公司 昆明市公司|
|关键词： 烘烤工艺 美引烤烟新品种 NC297 质量性状|
|出版年,卷(期):页码：2015 ,46 ( 7 )： 页码：1275-1279|
【目的】探索昆明地区美引烤烟品种NC297形成最佳品质的适宜烘烤工艺，为提高昆明地区烤烟NC297的品质及经济效益提供参考依据。【方法】以烤烟NC297为试验材料，比较分析3个不同烘烤工艺（T1：变黄期干球温度36 ℃、干湿差2~3 ℃，定色期干球温度44 ℃、干湿差10~12 ℃；T2：变黄期干球温度38 ℃、干湿差2~3 ℃，定色期干球温度46 ℃、干湿差10~12 ℃；T3：变黄期干球温度40 ℃、干湿差2~3 ℃，定色期干球温度48 ℃、干湿差10~12 ℃）对烟叶外观质量、经济性状、主要化学成分及感官质量的影响。【结果】烤烟NC297下部叶的外观质量、经济性状、主要化学成分及感官质量均以T1处理表现最佳，中、上部叶以T3处理表现最佳。具体表现为叶片颜色橘黄，结构疏松或稍密，油分有或多，色度中或强；青杂烟比例低（4.3%、5.0%和9.8%），产量及中上等烟比例高，分别为777.0、1082.2、915.7 kg/ha和76.62%、88.59%、88.90%；化学成分协调性最佳；香气量足，劲头适中，余味干净，感官评吸得分高。【结论】不同烘烤工艺对烤烟NC297不同部位叶质量性状的影响不同，在实际生产中可根据原料部位选择匹配的烘烤工艺以获得高品质烟叶。
【Objective】The curing technique of flue-cured tobacco variety NC297 introduced from America was optimized to process high-quality flue-cured tobacco in Kunming region， in order to provided basis for improving quality and economic benefit of flue-cured tobacco NC297. 【Method】The raw tobacco NC297 as material were processed with different curing techniques（T1， T1 and T3）. The processing conditions of T1 were as follows： dry-bulb temperature of 36 ℃ and psychrometric difference of 2-3 ℃ at yellowing stage， dry-bulb temperature of 44 ℃， and psychrometric difference of 10-12 ℃ at color fixing stage. The processing conditions of T2 were as follows： dry-bulb temperature of 38 ℃ and psychrometric difference of 2-3 ℃ at yellowing stage， dry-bulb temperature of 46 ℃ and psychrometric difference of 10-12 ℃ at color fixing stage. The processing conditions of T3 were as follows： dry-bulb temperature of 40 ℃ and psychrometric difference of 2-3 ℃ at yellowing stage； dry-bulb temperature of 48 ℃ and psychrometric difference of 10-12 ℃ at color fixing stage. Then the effect of different curing techniques on tobacco’s appearance quality， economic character， main chemical components and sensory quality was compared and analyzed. 【Result】The results showed that in terms of appearance quality， economic character， main chemical components and sensory quality， T1 treatment was optimal as for flue-cured lower leaves and T3 treatment was optimal as for flue-cured middle and upper leaves. These optimal flue-cured leaves were characterized by orange leaves， loose or slightly dense structure， less or more oil， strong or moderate color intensity. Furthermore， as for lower， middle and upper leaves， the green and variegated leaves accounted for 4.3%， 5.0% and 9.8%， respectively， and their yields were relatively higher， which were 777.0， 1082.2 and 915.7 kg/ha， respectively， and their high- and middle-class leaves proportion were aslo relatively higher， which were 76.62%， 88.59% and 88.90%， respectively. These optimal flue-cured leaves showed optimal coordination of chemical components， sufficient aroma， moderate physiological strength and clean aftertaste， and the score of sensory and smoking quality was relatively higher. 【Conclusion】Different curing techniques have different influences on qualitative characters of flue-cured tobacco from different parts of NC297 tobacco plant. Therefore， the matched curing technique should be chosen to obtain high-quality tobacco based on source of raw tobacco leaves in actual production.