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不同改良剂对玉米富集重金属含量的影响
作者: 范稚莲  雷 蕾  莫良玉*  吴惟筠  赵于莹  
单位: (广西大学 农学院  南宁 530004)  
关键词: 玉米  改良剂  重金属  富集  
分类号:S156.2
出版年,卷(期):页码:2016 ,47 ( 12 ): 页码:2047-2052
摘要:

【目的】筛选出能够最大限度降低植株重金属含量,价格较低廉且当地易获得的改良剂,为复合污染土壤的修复提供理论依据。【方法】通过大田实验,以不施改良剂为对照(CK),选用不同的改良剂(煤灰、菌渣、蚕沙、煤灰/菌渣、煤灰/蚕沙)施入受污染的土壤中,用原子吸收光谱法测定砷(As)、镉(Cd)、铅(Pb)、锌(Zn)等重金属在玉米不同生长时期和不同部位的富集情况,分析不同改良剂的改良效果。【结果】不同改良剂均能减少玉米植株各器官的重金属含量。在单独施用一种改良剂的情况下,与CK相比,玉米苗期施用煤灰后其根部吸收Cd、Pb、Zn的比例分别降低65.45%、29.00%和54.28%,蚕沙对地上部富集重金属的抑制效果最佳,吸收As、Cd、Pb和Zn分别降低60.46%、68.87%、63.99%和19.51%;在玉米成熟期,蚕沙对玉米根、茎富集重金属的抑制效果最佳。在施用混合改良剂的情况下,玉米苗期施入煤灰/蚕沙和煤灰/菌渣两种改良剂能钝化多种重金属,尤其适用于多种重金属污染的土壤修复;煤灰/蚕沙对玉米的根富集重金属有很好的抑制作用,与CK相比,根对As、Pb、Zn的富集分别降低72.69%、35.38%和44.72%;对地上部效果最好的是煤灰/菌渣,与CK相比,地上部对As、Cd、Pb、Zn的富集分别降低76.80%、95.46%、74.38%和30.45%;在玉米成熟期,煤灰/蚕沙对玉米叶重金属的抑制作用最明显,与CK相比,叶对As、Cd、Pb、Zn的富集分别降低67.93%、83.33%、50.48%和53.63%,但测出玉米籽粒中Zn含量均超过或接近国家限量标准,不能食用。【结论】煤灰/蚕沙对玉米吸收重金属的抑制效果最佳,能极大地减少As、Cd、Pb和Zn 4种重金属在玉米中的富集量并能增加玉米产量。

【Objective】The present study was conducted to screen the amendments which were able to reduce heavy metal content in plants to the maximum extent, economically competitive and easily accessible, in order to provide a theoretical basis for remediation of contaminated soil. 【Method】Field experiment was carried out. Taking the soil with no amendments as control(CK), different amendments(coal ash, slag bacteria, silkworm sand, coal ash/slag bacteria, soot/silkworm excrement) were applied in contaminated soil, and heavy metals such as As, Cd, Pb, Zn at different growth stages in different parts of corn were detected by atomic absorption spectrometry method. The improvement effects of different amendments were analyzed. 【Result】Different amendments were able to reduce heavy metal content in each maize organ. In terms of application of single amendment at maize seedling stage, compared with CK, application of coal ash reduced 65.45% Cd, 29% Pb, 54.28% Zn uptakes in maize root; mushroom dreg had the best effects inhibiting heavy metal accumulation in above ground, As uptake decreased by 60.46%, Cd uptake decreased by 68.87%, Pb uptake decreased by 63.99% and Zn uptake decreased by 19.51%. At maize maturity stage, silkworm excrement had the best inhibition effects on heavy metal accumulation in maize root and stem. When applying mixed amendments, at maize seedling stage, coal ash/silkworm excrement and coal ash/mushroom dreg could passivate many kinds of metal, and was especially suitable for remediation of soil contaminated by heavy metal; coal ash/silkworm excrement could inhibit heavy metal accumulation in maize root, accumulation of As, Pb and Zn reduced 72.69%, 35.38% and 44.72% respectively compared with CK; coal ash/mushroom dreg had the best effects on above ground part, accumulation of As, Cd, Pb and Zn in maize above ground decreased by 76.8%, 95.46%, 74.38% and 30.45% respectively. At maize mature stage, coal ash/silkworm excrement had the most obvious inhibiting effects on maize leaf heavy metal accumulation, accumulation of As, Cd, Pb and Zn reduced 67.93%, 83.33%, 50.48% and 53.63% respectively compared with CK. But measured Zn contents in maize grains were over or close to national limited standard and therefore inedible. 【Conclusion】Coal ash/silkworm excrement has the best inhibitory effects on heavy metals uptake in maize, can greatly reduce the accumulation of As, Cd, Pb and Zn in maize and increase maize yield.

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