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花粉直感效应对桂单0810百粒重的影响
作者: 何静丹  文仁来  苏月贵  田树云  何雪银  苏义成  
单位: (广西农业科学院 玉米研究所  南宁 530007)  
关键词: 桂单0810  花粉直感效应  百粒重  当代杂种优势  超亲优势  中亲优势  
分类号:S513
出版年,卷(期):页码:2015 ,46 ( 2 ): 页码:199-203
摘要:

【目的】研究不同玉米品种花粉对桂单0810百粒重的影响,为挖掘该品种的产量潜力奠定基础。【方法】采用完全随机区组设计,利用8个不同玉米杂交种作为父本,对桂单0810进行人工授粉,并对不同杂交种分别进行自交及姊妹交。果穗成熟后,测定自交、姊妹交及杂交果穗的籽粒百粒重。【结果】同一品种自交果穗与姊妹交果穗的百粒重间表现出不同程度的差异,亚航639和太平洋98自交果穗籽粒百粒重比姊妹交极显著降低5.47%和5.36%(P<0.01,下同);琛玉969、桂单0810和迪卡008自交百粒重比姊妹交增加0.35%~2.64%,其他各品种自交百粒重比姊妹交降低0.19%~2.11%,且均未达显著水平(P>0.05,下同)。8个玉米品种的花粉均可增加桂单0810的百粒重,其中正大808、太平洋98、先达901、琛玉969和亚航639等5个品种花粉可极显著增加桂单0810的百粒重。8个玉米品种与桂单0810的杂交组合百粒重均表现出当代(F0)杂种优势(1.31%~12.70%),7个杂交组合表现出超亲优势。杂种优势最明显的是桂单0810×正大808组合,百粒重比母本桂单0810和父本正大808分别提高12.70%和15.68%,中亲优势达14.17%。【结论】玉米品种桂单0810易接受外来玉米品种花粉,通过花粉直感效应增加自身百粒重并具有当代杂种优势和超亲优势;其花粉直感效应因父本基因型不同而异。

【Objective】The xenia effects of different maize cultivars on 100-grain weight of Guidan 0810 was studied in order to lay the foundation on enhancing yield potential of Guidan 0810. 【Method】With randomized completed block design(RCBD), 8 maize cultivars were used as male parent to cross with maize cultivar Guidan 0810. Meanwhile, self- and sib-pollination were conducted on all the 9 maize cultivars, respectively. After harvesting, the 100-grain weight(HGW) of self-, sib-, cross-pollination cobs was measured, respectively. 【Result】There existed varying degrees differences in HGW between self- and sib-pollination cob for the same cultivar. The self-pollination HGW of two cultivars viz., Yahang 639 and Pacific 98 were 5.47% and 5.36% higher than that of sib-pollination(P<0.01), respectively. The self-pollination HGW of Chenyu 969, Guidan 0810 and Dekarl 008 were increased by 0.35%-2.64% as compared to their sib-pollination. The self-pollination HGW of other varieties were decreased by 0.19%-2.11% as compared to sib-pollination. All the 8 maize cultivars showed the positive xenia effect and could enhance the HGW of Guidan 0810. Out of which, 5 cultivars viz., Zhengda 808, Pacific 98, Xianda 901, Chenyu 969 and Yahang 639, could extremely significantly increase the HGW of Guidan 0810. The F0 heterosis(1.31%-12.70%) was found in HWG among different crossing combinations of Guidan 0810, and mid-parent heterosis were found in 7 crossing combinations. The combination Guidan 0810×Zhengda 808 presented the best heterosis, its HWG was 12.70% and 15.68% higher than that of female parent Guidan 0810 and male parent Zhengda 808, and the mid-parent heterosis was found the highest(14.17%).【Conclusion】Maize cultivar Guidan 0810 could easily fertilize with pollen grains from external maize cultivars. Its grain weight could be increased resulting from xenia effect, and showed the F0 heterosis and heterobeltiosis; this xenia effect was depended on male parent genotype.

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