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滨海盐碱地冬枣对钾肥的响应
作者: 姜昭然1  杨守军1  杜振宇2 *  
单位: (1 中国农业大学 烟台研究院  山东 烟台 264670;2 山东省林业科学研究院  济南 250014)  
关键词: 冬枣  钾肥  生理特性  产量  品质  
分类号:S665.1
出版年,卷(期):页码:2014 ,45 ( 10 ): 页码:1803-1806
摘要:

【目的】探讨不同土壤施钾水平对冬枣叶片生理特性、果实产量和品质的影响,确定滨海盐碱地区冬枣的最佳施钾量。【方法】以10年生的冬枣(Ziziphus jujube Mill. cv. Dongzao)为试材,于萌芽前和果实膨大期按常规方法进行施肥,共设4个处理,施钾量分别为0、125、250和375 kg/ha。于花期、幼果期与收获期对不同钾处理的叶片酶活性、钾含量、渗透势、相对膨压及果实产量和品质进行调查和分析。【结果】钾肥能明显促进冬枣叶片过氧化物酶和过氧化氢酶的活性,与对照相比,随着钾肥用量的增加,冬枣叶片渗透势随之下降,其中施用125、250和375 kg/ha钾肥处理的渗透势在冬枣收获时分别较对照降低了19.8%、36.1%和38.2%,差异达显著水平(P<0.05,下同)。相比对照处理,施用钾肥处理均能显著提高冬枣叶片相对膨压和K+/Na+,其中施用250和375 kg/ha的钾肥处理差异不显著(P>0.05,下同),且两者均显著高于施用125 kg/ha钾肥的处理;施用钾肥可显著提高冬枣产量,以施用250 kg/ha钾肥处理的产量最高,为28050.0 kg/ha,但其与施用375 kg/ha钾肥处理差异不显著;施用钾肥提高了果实糖酸比,有利于果实风味品质改善,以施用375 kg/ha钾肥处理的效果最佳。【结论】黄河三角洲地区冬枣钾肥推荐施用量为250 kg/ha。

【Objective】The effects of potassium fertilizer applied to soil at different levels on leaf physiological characteristics,yield and fruit quality were evaluated to determine the optimal application amount of potassium in coastal saline soil.【Method】Potassium fertilizer at 0,125,250 and 375 kg/ha levels was applied to 10-year-old winter jujube trees (Zizyphus jujuba Mill. cv. Dongzao) before bud break and during the fruit expansion period. Under four different treatments of potassium application,leaf enzyme activity,potassium content,osmotic potential,relative turgidity,fruit yield and fruit quality were investigated and analyzed. 【Result】Potassium application significantly increased activities of catalase and peroxidase. Compared to the control,osmotic potentials of jujube leaves treated by 125 kg/ha,250 kg/ha and 375 kg/ha were respectively decreased by 19.8%,36.1% and 38.2% at harvest period and the differences were obvious. In comparison to the control,potassium fertilizer improved relative turgidity and K+/Na+ of leaf,of which,250 kg/ha and 375 kg/ha treatments were significantly better than treatment of 125 kg/ha but statistical analysis demonstrated that no difference was found between them. Also,potassium application increased fruit yield and the highest value of 28050.0 kg/ha occurred in treatment of 250 kg/ha potassium but it was not different from 375 kg/ha treatment. Due to potassium application,fruit quality was improved in ratio of sugar to acid and the best effect appeared in treatment of 375 kg/ha. 【Conclusion】Potassium application at the rate of 250 kg/ha is highly recommended for yellow river delta.

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